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06年研究生学位英语考试2

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PART IV READING COMPREHENSION (45 minutes, 30 points, 1 point each)

Passage 1

There are over 6,000 different computer and online games in the world now. A segment of them are considered to be both educational and harmlessly entertaining. One such game teaches geography, and another trains pilots. Others train the player in logical thinking and problem solving. Some games may also help young people to become more computer literate, which is more important in this technology-driven era.

But the dark side of the computer games has become more and more obvious. "A segment of games features anti-social themes of violence, sex and crude language," says David Walsh, president of the National Institute on Media and Family. "Unfortunately, it's a segment that seems particularly popular with kids aged eight to fifteen."

One study showed that almost 80 percent of the computer and online games young people preferred contained violence. The investigators said "These are not just games anymore. These are learning machines. We're teaching kids in the most incredible manner what it's like to pull the trigger. What they are not learning are the real-life consequences."

They also said "The new and more sophisticated games are even worse, because they have better graphics and allow the player to participate in even more realistic violent acts." In the game Carmageddon, for example, the player will have driven over and killed up to 33,000 people by the time all levels are completed. A description of the outcome of the game says: "Your victims not only squish under your tires and splatter blood on the windshield, they also get on their knees and beg for mercy, or commit suicide. If you like, you can also dismember them."

Is all this simulated violence harmful? Approximately 3,000 different studies have been conducted on this subject. Many have suggested that there is a connection between violence in games and increased aggressiveness in the players.

Some specialists downplay the influence of the games, saying that other factors must be taken into consideration, such as the possibility that kids who already have violent tendencies are choosing such games. But could it be that violent games still play a contributing role? It seems unrealistic to insist that people are not influenced by what they see. If that were true, why would the commercial world spend billions of dollars annually

for television advertising?

51. Which of the following computer games is NOT mentioned as educational and harmlessly entertaining?

A. Those that help people learn more about computers.

B. Those that teach the features of the earth.

C. Those that provide special training for writers online.

D. Those that provide special training for pilots.

52. According to one study, most computer and online games

A. allow the players to take part in killing acts

B. teach the players to be antisocial

C. make the players forget the real life results

D. that young people like contain violence

53. What does the underlined word "dismember" in Paragraph 4 mean?

A. To kick somebody out.

B. To cut somebody into pieces.

C. To dismiss somebody.

D. To stab a knife into somebody.

54. Many studies have suggested that____________.

A. more and more young people enjoy cruel computer games

B. violence in computer games makes their players more aggressive

C. there are now far more incidents of violence due to computer games

D. simulated violence in computer games is different from real violence

55. The author uses “television advertising” as an example to show that____________.

A. other factors must be considered as possible causes of violence in real life

B. computer and online games are not the only cause of increased violence in real life

C. the commercial world is contributing to the increased violence in real life

D. there is a close link between computer games and increased violence in real life

56. The best title for the passage is___________.

A. The Dark Side of Computer Games

B. Computer Games--Advantages and Disadvantages

C. The Development of Violent Computer Games

D. A Study on the Influence of Computer Games

Passage Two

The collapse of the Earth's magnetic field---which guards the planet and guides many of its creatures--appears to have started seriously about 150 years ago, the New York Times reported last week.

The field's strength has decreased by 10 or 15 per cent so far and this has increased the debate over whether it signals a reversal of the planet's lines of magnetic force.

During a reversal, the main field weakens, almost vanishes, and reappears with opposite polarity. The transition would take thousands of years. Once completed, compass needles that had pointed north would point south. A reversal could cause problems for both man and animals. Astronauts and satellites would have difficulties.

Birds, fish and animals that rely on the magnetic field for navigation would find migration confusing. But experts said the effects would not be a big disaster, despite claims of doom and vague evidence of links between past field reversals and species extinctions.

Although a total transition may be hundreds or thousands of years away, the rapid decline in magnetic strength is already affecting satellites. Last month, the European Space Agency approved the world's largest effort at tracking the field's shifts. A group of new satellites, called Swarm, is to monitor the collapsing field with far greater precision. "We want to get some idea of how this would evolve in the near future, just like people trying to predict the weather," said Ganthier Hulot, a French geophysicist working on the satellite plan. "I'm personally quite convinced we should be able to work out the first predictions by the end of the mission."

No matter what the new findings, the public has no reason to panic. Even if a transition is coming on its way, it might take 2,000 years to mature. The last one took place 780,000 years ago, when early humans were learning how to make stone tools. Deep inside the Earth flow hot currents of melted iron. This mechanical energy creates electromagnetism. This process is known as the geophysical generator. In a car's generator, the same principle turns mechanical energy into electricity.

No one knows precisely why the field periodically reverses. But scientists say the responsibility probably lies with changes in the disorderly flows of melted iron, which they see as similar to the gases that make up the clouds of Jupiter.

57. According to the passage, the Earth's magnetic field has ____________.

A. begun to change in the opposite direction

B. been weakening in strength for a long time

C. caused the changes on the polarities

D. misguided many a man and animal

58. During the transition of the Earth's magnetic field _____________.

A. the compass will become useless

B. man and animals will be confused as to directions

C. the magnetic strength of the Earth will disappear

D. the magnetic strength of the Earth will be stronger

59. According to the experts, the reversal of the Earth's magnetic field would ____________.

A. destroy almost all the creatures on the Earth

B. cause some species extinctions on the Earth

C. not be as disastrous as the previous one

D. cause no big trouble for man and animals

60. According to the passage,_____________.

A. we should not worry about the transition of the Earth's magnetic field

B. the Earth's magnetic field will not change for at least 2,000 years

C. the Earth's magnetic field has decreased its strength rapidly

D. the transition of the Earth's magnetic field can be controlled by modem science

61. The author says "...the public has no reason to panic" because_______________.

A. the transition is still thousands of years away

B. the new transition will come 780,000 years from now

C. the transition can be precisely predicted by scientists

D. the process of the transition will take a very long time to finish

62. The transition of the Earth's magnetic field is possibly caused by____________.

A. the flows of melted iron inside the Earth

B. the periodical movement of the Earth

C. the mechanical energy of the solar system

D. the force coming from outer space

Passage Three

The terrorist attacks in London Thursday served as a stunning reminder that in today's world, you never know what you might see when you pick up the newspaper or turn on the TV. Disturbing images of terror can trigger an instinctive response no matter how close or far away from home the event happened.

Throughout history, every military conflict has involved psychological warfare in one way or another as the enemy sought to break the morale of their opponent. But thanks to advances in technology, the popularity of the Internet, and proliferation of news coverage, the roles of engagement in this type of mental battle have changed.

Whether it's a massive attack or a single horrific act, the effects of psychological warfare aren't limited to the physical damage inflicted. Instead, the goal of these attacks is to instill a sense of fear that is much greater than the actual threat itself.

Therefore, the impact of psychological terror depends largely on how the acts are publicized and interpreted. But that also means there are ways to defend yourself and your loved ones by putting these fears into perspective and protecting your children from horrific images.

What Is Psychological Terror? “The use of terrorism as a tactic is based upon inducing a climate of fear that is disproportionate: with the actual threat," says Middle Eastern historian Richard Bulliet of Columbia University. "Every time you have an act of violence, publicizing that violence becomes an important part of the act itself."

"There are various ways to have your impact. You can have your impact by the magnitude of what you do, by the symbolic character of target, or the horrific quality of what you do to a single person," Bulliet tells WebMD. "The point is that it isn't what you do, but it's how it's covered that determines the effect." For example, Bulliet says the Iranian hostage crisis, which began in 1979 and lasted for A A.4 days, was actually one of the most harmless things that happened in the Middle East in the last 25 years. All of the U.S. hostages were eventually released unharmed, but the event remains a psychological scar for many Americans who watched helplessly as each evening's newscast counted the days the hostages were being held captive.

Bulliet says terrorists frequently exploit images of a group of masked individuals exerting total power over their captives to send the message that the act is a collective demonstration of the group's power rather than an individual criminal act. "You don't have the notion that a certain person has taken a hostage. It's an image of group power, and the force becomes generalized rather than personalized," says Bulliet. "The randomness and the ubiquity of the threat give the impression of vastly greater capacities."

Psychiatrist Ansar Haroun, who served in the U.S. Army Reserves in the first Gulf War and more recently in Afghanistan, says that terrorist groups often resort to psychological warfare because it's the only tactic they have available to them. "They don't have M-16s, and we have M-16s. They don't have the mighty military power that we have, and they only have access to things like kidnapping," says Haroun, who is also a clinical professor of psychiatry at the University of California, San Diego.

"In psychological warfare, even one beheading (斩首) can have the psychological impact that might be associated with killing 1,000 of the enemy," Haroun tells WebMD. "You haven't really harmed the enemy very much by killing one person on the other side. But in terms of inspiring fear, anxiety, terror, and making us all feel bad, you've achieved a lot of demoralization."

63. What has changed the rules of psychological warfare?

A. Terrorist attacks.

B. The increase of military conflicts.

C. Advances in nuclear weapons.

D. Prosperity of the media.

64. The goal of psychological warfare is to____________.

A. change the ideology of the opponent

B. win a battle without military attacks

C. generate a greater sense of fear

D. bring about more physical damage

65. According to Richard Bulliet, publicizing an act of violence becomes an important part of terrorism itself because__________.

A. psychological terrorism is a tactic

B. terrorism depends on a climate of fear rather than on the actual threat

C. the use of terrorism is to inspire fear that is more destructive than the actual threat

D. publicizing the violence can make more people know the actual threat

66. The Iranian hostage crisis shows that___________.

A. means determines effects

B. hostage crises are prevalent

C. psychological terrors remain harmless

D. the American media is effective

67: Terrorists hold an individual as a hostage to _____________.

A. scare the public

B. demonstrate their cruelty

C. manipulate the government concerned

D. show their group power

68. In this passage the author___________.

A. emphasizes the great impact of psychological warfare

B. criticizes the violence of terrorism

C. calls for an end to psychological warfare

D. opposes the hostage crisis

Passage Four

In a year marked by uncertainty and upheaval, officials at New Orleans universities that draw applicants nationwide are not following the usual rules of thumb when it comes to college admissions. The only sure bet, they say, is that this fall's entering classes—the first since Katrina--will be smaller than usual.

In typical years, most college admissions officials can predict fairly accurately by this point in the admissions cycle how many high school seniors will commit to enrolling in their institutions. Many of the most selective schools require students—who increasingly are applying to mt,'ltiple institutions--to make their choices by May 1.

Loyola University, whose trustees will vote May 19 on whether to drop several degree programs and eliminate 17 faculty positions, received fewer applications--about 2,900 to date, compared with 3,500 in recent years. The school hopes to enroll 700 freshmen, down from 850 in the past few years. Historically black Dillard University, which is operating out of a hotel and was forced to cancel its annual March open house, also saw drops, as did Xavier University, a historically black Catholic institution that fell behind its recruitment schedule. Dillard won't release numbers, but spokeswoman Maureen Larkins says applications were down and enrollments are expected to be lower than in the past. Xavier admissions dean Winston Brown says its applicant pool fell by about half of last year's record 1,014; he hopes to enroll 500 freshmen.

In contrast, Tulane University, which is the most selective of the four and developed an aggressive recruitment schedule after the hurricane, enjoyed an 11% increase in applications this year, to a record 20,715. Even so, officials predict that fewer admitted students will enroll and are projecting a smaller-than-usual freshman class--l,400, compared with a more typical 1,600. Tulane officials announced in December that they would eliminate some departments and faculty positions.

Like Tulane, other schools are taking extra steps this year to please admitted students, often by enlisting help from alumni (校友会) around the country and reaching out to students with more e-mail, phone calls or Web-based interactions such as blogs. In addition, Loyola is relaxing deadlines, sweetening the pot with larger scholarships and freezing tuition at last year's level. Dillard, too, is freezing tuition. It's also hosting town meetings in target cities and regions nationwide, and moved its academic calendar back from August to mid-September "to turn away from the majority of the hurricane season," Larkins says. Xavier extended its application deadline and stepped up its one-on-one contact with accepted students. And Tulane, among other things, has doubled the number a hurricane of on-campus programs for accepted students and hosted a community service weekend program.

While the schools expect applicants to be apprehensive, the admissions officials also see encouraging signs of purposefulness among applicants. "A lot of students who are choosing to come to this city are saying, 'I want to be a part of the action,'" says Stieffel, noting that Loyola's transfer applications were up 30%. And while applications to Xavier are down, Brown is betting that students who do apply are serious. "The ones who are applying, we feel, are more likely to come," he says.

69. The word "Katrina" in Para. 1 probably refers to_____________.

A. a hurricane

B. an admission official

C. a university

D. a student

70. It can be learned from the passage that__________.

A. most colleges require students to apply and commit to their institutions

B. more students are applying to multiple institutions

C. all students are required to make their institution choices by May 1

D. university trustees make decisions on enrollment.

71. The following statements are all true EXCEPT_________________.

A. Tulane University also saw drops in applications this year

B. Xavier University fell behind its recruitment schedule

C. applicants to Xavier university fell by about half of last year's record

D. Loyola University will vote on whether to eliminate 17 faculty positions

72. In order to attract applicants, Loyola University and Dillard University are both_________.

A. freezing tuitions

B. extending application deadlines

C. hosting meetings

D. increasing scholarships

73. Tulane University enjoyed an increase in applicants due to its__________.

A. new enrollment policies

B. aggressive recruitment schedule

C. academic position

D. financial situation

74. The passage is mainly concerned with____________.

A. the drops of the applicants of universities

B. the dilemma of the admission officials

C. the usual rules of college admissions

D. the effects of the hurricane



Passage Five

A store exposure to crime does not diminish when the store is closed. On the contrary, as night falls, criminals are on the move looking for the best crime opportunity. This period of time is, in fact, critical. Owners generally rely only on the presence of physical barriers and electronic security. But they do not seem to be able to stop a determined effort by a group of professional criminals.

When closed, commercial stores can be attacked in many different ways such as:

Three-minute burglary. It involves attacking a glass front door or a window at night, smashing a display case, and stealing merchandise left out of safes. This type of criminals has little concern about the alarm system: They intend to be gone before any reaction is made to the alarm signal. In the United States, this type of burglary represents nearly 75% of all the burglary events in the jewelry industry.

Ramming. It means driving into a store by smashing the front windows or doors. It has also been a practice used by criminals to gain access to valuable merchandise.

Safecracking. It involves attacking a safe and stealing its contents. It should not be left out as a risk for store owners, but it makes up for a very small percentage of closed store crimes. This type of crime is decreasing as a result of the high security safes and alarm systems.

Robbery is not frequent during closing time, but always represents a threat to store owners. Criminals may in fact decide to take them (or family members) hostage when at home and force them back to the store.

To reduce the risks for a closed store crime to occur, the following reduction strategies are recommended:

Safes. Time locks on safes, which allow opening only at specified times, can be considered as an added source of protection. Making use of different safes for high value merchandise can also reduce potentially heavy losses.

Exterior and interior lighting. This is essential, as it remains one of the most effective weapons against burglary, theft and armed robbery. Lights should be positioned at strategic points and exterior lights should be protected against damage.

Security systems. Detection and security systems are extremely important. Another interesting device is the smoke screen system. Once activated, this system, within seconds, fills a small area with a thick but harmless smoke, thus preventing criminals from seeing and forcing them to flee.

75. A store exposed to crime at day time __________.

A. is less likely to be attacked with the presence of physical barriers at night

B. seems to invite a group of professional criminals at night

C. creates the best crime opportunity at night

D. is more likely to be broken into at night

76. Three-minute burglars do not worry much about the alarm system because____________.

A. they know how to destroy the alarm system

B. they know how to stay away from the alarm system

C. they can finish their work within a short period of time

D. they have made sure that no policeman is around at that time

77. Which of the following crimes is most commonly found in the jewelry industry?

A. Ramming.

B. Robbery.

C. Safecracking.

D. Three-minute burglary.

78. Which of the following is NOT mentioned as a way of reducing safecracking?

A. Bigger safes.

B. Alarm systems.

C. High security safes.

D. Time locks on safes.

79. The smoke screen system is mainly used to______________.

A. prevent criminals from running out of stores

B. prevent criminals from opening the safes

C. force the criminals to give in to the police

D. force the criminals to run out of the stores

80. The passage is mainly about__________.

A. a comparison of different alarm systems

B. various store crimes and strategies against them

C. the relations between store locations and crime rates

D. the importance of security systems in preventing crimes

Part V Translation (30 minutes, 20 points)

Section A (15 minutes, 10 points)

Social progress has done away with the need for backbreaking work and has provided time and leisure for personality development. With it, indeed because of it, today the middle-class family expects each of its members to develop his unique personality, and so does each individual, more or less, himself. This new obligation of the family to provide a setting for the development of a unique personality makes family

consensus extremely difficult, if not impossible. Nothing is more problematic for a small group of quite different, unique individuals than to live in close quarters, in close harmony with each other. Besides, the necessity of cultivating teenagers' moral character adds to the difficulty in parenting.

Section B (15 minutes, 10 points)

人们经常抱怨“就医难,学费贵”,可另一个值得注意的问题是乐天堂国际毕业生就业难。硕士生找工作再不像十年前那么容易。由于目趋激烈的职位竞争,乐天堂国际成绩好和专业知识强并不一定变成理想的工作。乐天堂国际娱乐主管部门一直在寻求各种手段创造乐天堂国际娱乐的就业机会。

PART VI WRITING ( 30 minutes, 10 points )

Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write a composition of no less than 150 words under the title of "Whether to Pursue a Ph.D Degree". Your composition should be based on the following outline:

1) Do you want to pursue a Ph.D degree?

2) Why or why not?
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